Research on User Interaction

Pen Computing


Paper Prototyping Tool using n Code (2014)

Pen computing refers to a computer user-interface using a digital pen. We develop nobel user interactions in collaboration with Neolab Convergence, using their n code technology. In our first project, we designed a prototyping tool for ad hoc mobile prototyping, which allows designers build a prototyping system quickly and make a prototype interactive. The system supports a designer’s natural behaviors and builds an interactive prototype from the designer’s sketches.

The Issue Network


The Issue Network (2014)

In this research, we propose a novel research method of using an Issue-Network system, an interactive tool that helps to define problem spaces and encourage representational shifts. The Issue-Network is designed to collect issues from users, score severity ratings on each issue, and discover problem spaces in the network of user- generated issues. The system is designed to help users break out of their own perspectives of looking into problem spaces by enabling an alternative and more creative way to connect nodes in a network. We conducted a case study with a navigation device manufacturer to define customer-centric problem spaces for driving-related situations. We evaluated the problem spaces generated using the tool by comparing them to those generated from traditional brainstorming sessions. The result proved that the network map successfully forms more inclusive and extensible problem spaces.

  • Dongwhan Kim, Dongmin Lee, Seyong Ha and Joonhwan Lee (2014). “The Issue-Network: Exploratory Network Searching for Defining Context-Relative Problem Spaces” (Under Review, ACM SIGCHI)

Automatic Text Highlights


Automatic Text Highlights on Mobile Phone (2014)

People often read an article on mobile phone quickly, not to get the details, but to get the gist of it. Skim reading can be a good strategy for readers to acquire more information in limited time, but many studies have shown that it can lead to lower recall and comprehension level. We believe that a proper reading support tool, such as highlights, can help mobile readers to read more productively without losing the benefits of skim reading. In this paper, we proposed a novel method of generating highlights by collecting readers’ scrolling behaviors while using mobile phone. Results indicate that cumulative exposure time of each sentence showed high similarity scores with gaze data from eye tracker. Also, the highlights generated from our mobile application effectively represented the important parts of the articles. Moreover, survey results showed that more than 60% of the respondents were willing to use this system. This study contributes to the method for collecting implicit reading pattern data from the mobile phone and using crowdsourcing approach for generating highlights.

  • Sungjin Nam, JongHwah Oh and Joonhwan Lee (2014). “Generating Highlights from Scrolling Behavior on Mobile Phone” (Under Review, ACM SIGCHI)

MOOC (Massive Online Open Courses)

Although the MOOC platform appeared several years ago, there is still not enough scientific research on how to make a good lecture video. In the given situation, this study explores how MOOC video length is associated with learners’ comprehension level. To lead in-depth research, qualities and main teaching methods were considered at length. An eye tracker was used, and recall tests were utilized for analysis. According to eye tracking data and recall test result, what matters is high quality of lecture videos. Length of videos or Difference in teaching style or lesson goal seems not to hugely influence learners’ achievements. Fundamental strength of short video is not the length per se, but careful plans resulting in the short videos.


These days, many smartphone applications adopt the concept of gamification in order to motivate people. We explore whether this gamification, that stimulates extrinsic motivation through competitive elements, is actually helpful in promoting intrinsic motivation that has been claimed effective in achieving long-term goals.
We had focus group interview with participants who either have or had used the smartphone application adopting the concept of gamification to achieve their goals. From the interview, we found that the concept of gamification does not work in all cases-when intrinsic motivation is more important.
From the review of prior work and the analysis of our focus group interview, we proposed the normification framework as an alternative. The framework is categorized into five parts: term, awareness, reward, evaluation criterion, and representation. Finally, we introduce the example case in order to prove the significance of the normification framework.
This study shows the possibility that the concept of normification would be an effective alternative approach to the goal that needs intrinsic motivation, which the concept of gamification cannot stimulate.

  • Yaena Jang and Joonhwan Lee (2014). “Normification: An Alternative Approach of Gamification” (Un-
    der Review, ACM SIGCHI)

Dropbox Visualization


Dropbox Visualization (2014)

Cloud services play a critical role in collaboration in these days. In this paper, we propose a system that enables us to investigate the collaboration patterns in Dropbox. Dropbox is one of the most popular cloud service out there, and we explored collaboration patterns through Dropbox’ event log visualization. We first implemented a new type of visualization, which is similar to the mixture of Gantt chart and link-node network graph, and used it to analyze five cases of collaboration projects. From them, we found out four phases of collaboration highlighted by this visualization; Initiation, Solitary work, Team play, and Termination. Also, we recognized roles of participants for each phase, and observed that Team play phase can make their works more satisfying.

  • Younghoon Kim and Joonhwan Lee (2014). “Studying Collaboration Patterns with Dropbox Shared Folder Visualization” (Under Review, ACM SIGCHI)